In this MISTRA Working Paper, Joel Netshitenzhe deals with the role that the mining sector can play in attaining Vision 2030, proceeding from the understanding that the sector has a critical contribution to make, given its historical role in the evolution of South African society, the endowments that the country commands and the position the sector occupies in the socio-economic dynamics of South African society. His paper forms part of an ongoing MISTRA research project on The Future of Mining in South Africa: Sunset or Sunrise?