What if the Xi’s, Putins, Orans, Modi’s and Bolsanaros of the world are correct in their relentless critique of liberal democracy, and to follow repressive, protectionist or even chauvinistic policies? Many people in their
countries and elsewhere are beginning to believe so, with recent surveys highlighting worrying trends.

The Stockholm-based Institute for Democracy & ElectoralAssistance (IDEA) pointed out in a recent survey that for the fifth consecutive year, the number of countries moving in an authoritarian direction exceeds the number of countries moving in a democratic direction, now by a factor of three.

The most recent survey of the US’s Pew Research Centre shows that democracy is seen as not delivering. A median of 56% across 17advanced economies surveyed in 2021 say their political system needs major changes or needs to be completely reformed.